Most galaxies occupy groups or clusters with from 10 to hundreds of members. Each cluster is held together by the gravity from each galaxy. The more mass, the higher the velocities of the members, and this fact can be used to test for the presence of unseen matter.
What I as a social quantum sociologist would like to call the laws of governing dynamics between members. As a Christian sociologist, the laws put forward by God... laws that He knew we could never sustain on our own for this world is a fallen world. This universe a fallen universe ever since corrupted information was embraced.
That is why, in my education opinion, we have problems with determining exactly what is dark matter. We can read that in physics early measurements indicated that galaxies in clusters were moving too fast for the amount of matter estimated from counting the galaxies. This high motion was also detected in other kinematic studies, such as binary galaxies, galaxy rotation and large scale motion of superclusters. This is known as the dark matter problem. While we have not identified dark matter, we can study its properties we can characterize the influence of dark matter by studying the ratio of mass to light (M/L) over various locations.
What does dark matter do? Interestingly, it forms the halos around galaxies and the intracluster space between galaxies; and, that is why it is increasingly important on large scales. There is broad class of particle physics candidates for the dark matter which are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles or WIMPs. This class includes several proposed particles (massive Dirac neutrinos, cosmions, SUSY relics) that have masses of order a few GeV to a few hundred GeV and interact through the exchange of W's, Z's, higgs bosons and other intermediaries.
Masses of order that seem to form a class of heavy particles... slightly interacting with matter. From a social quantum perspective, we can interpret masses of order as meaning that gets crystallized in the finite social imagination. This meaning then slightly interacts with other matter 'finite social imaginations' – as t it recognizes that something must exist outside of its finite ordered matter. Metaphorically, recognizing that there is an outside meaning that its not part of and yet part of. In fact, the immediate ‘in-group’ meaning is contained in and sustained by whatever is outside as well as inside.
It is like this, we can look at other clusters of information = social realities outside of our own and see that there is something there but it is alien to our understanding our social imagination because it has a different platform of departure from ours. This suggests to us that meaning exists else where though we cannot from our vantage point comprehend it completely. There is light but a different kind. It is there we just don’t understand it from our position. This can also be applied to our understanding the Bible and the Creator who is the Creator of all things seen and unseen. From this truth, discussing dark matter can also be used to understand the universe and the Creator. The light of all matter (s) cannot not shine for us as we cannot grasp all light in the meaning of all information in the galaxy...in the universe; and because it is in a state of decay, corrupted, the dark matter will remain dark to us until the Light of the Creator is poured out and a new universe created with incorruptible meaning.